Zoology’s odd couple. The socialist radical & the sea cucumber fancier. The Casimir Cépède/Rémy Perrier student wallcharts.

Casimir Cépède (1882-1954).
Bibliothèque nationale de France Catalogue Général.

The French Zoologists, Casimir Cépède (1882-1954) and Rémy Perrier (1861-1936) both recieved France’s ultimate accolade, the Legion d’Honneur and were eminent, high achieving men in their day.

Casimir Cépède (left) however, is different. He studied Arctic plankton brought back by Jean-Baptiste Charcot after his historic French Antarctis Expedition and, to teach medical and scientific teams the characteristics of marsh insects, he created models of insects which could be assembled and disassembled.

Cépède also developed widely used tuberculosis and Spanish flu vaccines. Not content with that he founded Paris’s Institute of Applied Biology for the study of infectious diseases and their consequences. Alongside breakthoughs in Hematology and Pharmaceutical Botany studies, the Institute produced over 30 curative vaccines which were sold internationally.

Cépède was a lifelong, committed Socialist. He joined the french Socialist Party using the alias Élie Botte in 1905 & was friends with the biologist and radical, Alfred Giard. By 1947 he was on the Federal Executive Board of The Socialist Federation of the Seine. He was also an activist within the League for Human Rights, and the League for the Promotion of Cremation,

Juice on Perrier, who is best remembered scientifically for his studies of sea cucumbers, is non-existent.

In 1923, the seemingly unlikely collaborators, Cépède & Perrier began work on a series of wall charts for the students at the University of Comparative Anatomy and Zoology in Paris. Well loved and well used over time and in their browning, Sello-taped edged old age they add an unexpected bonus to the legacy of this odd couple of Zoology, Cépède & Perrier.

Whilst Cépède & Perrier would have sketched for and directed the making of these charts, neither man drew them. They were drawn by an unknown artist named “P. Méry” and edited by Jean Montaudon.

Credits : Cépède papers at L’Ours University de Recherche Socialiste, “The beauty of biodiversity: wallchart authors”, Department of Biology at the University of Padova, Wikipedia. Images: Phaidra Collezioni Digitali at the University of Padova and Bibliothèque nationale de France Catalogue Général.

Arcs aortiques des Vertébrés Amniens. Casimir Cépède & Rémy Perrier. c.1923.

The table illustrates the aortic arches in the embryo (1, 2) and in the adults of Amniotic Vertebrates, in different groups of reptiles (3, 6), birds (7) and mammals (8).

Tissu nerveux. Neurone – Cellules nerveuses – Fibres nerveuses. Casimir Cépède & Rémy Perrier. c.1923.

The table illustrates numerous types of nerve cells. These include a complete motor neuron (1), interneurons (10), the cellular soma of different types of afferent neurons (14 ac), a cell of the glia (astrocyte) (9)..

Infusoires Ciliés. Conjugaison du Paramecium caudatum. Casimir Cépède & Rémy Perrier. c.1923.

Phylum Ciliophora.
Scheme of conjugation in Paramecium caudatum with different stages of macro and micronucleus.

Système nerveux. Moelle épinière de l’homme. Casimir Cépède & Rémy Perrier. c.1923.

The table illustrates the central nervous system of man: spinal cord in the longitudinal representation as a whole (1), in cross section (3) with details of the afferent and efferent nerve pathways and the relationships of these pathways with the cerebral hemispheres (4), spinal nerve emergence (2).

Diptères. Muscidés. Casimir Cépède & Rémy Perrier. c.1923.

Subphylum Hexapoda
Class Insecta
Diptera, Muscidae

Calliphora life cycle. Various systems of larvae and adults are described.

Hémosporidies du Paludisme. Casimir Cépède & Rémy Perrier. c.1923.

Phylum Apicomplexa

Cycle of pathogens of three forms of malaria in the stomach of the definitive host (mosquito), in the liver cells and in the erythrocytes of vertebrates, intermediate hosts.

La Mue Chez les Arthropodes. Dernière mue du Criquet pélerin. Schistocerca peregrina.
Casimir Cépède & Rémy Perrier. c.1923.

Phylum Arthropoda
Subphylum Hexapoda
Class Insecta
Orthoptera, Caelifera
Schistocerca peregrina

Desert locust (5). (1-4) Final stages of the paurometabolous post-embryonic development

Cestodes IV. Cycle évolutif du Bothriocèphale. Casimir Cépède & Rémy Perrier. c.1923.

Class Cestoda
Diphyllobothrium latum

Heteroxenous parasite in the intestine of humans and mammals that feed on fish. First intermediate host is a copepod crustacean (3a), second one is generally a fish. Scolex and strobila of proglottids. Mature proglottid with uterus in the middle, laterally vitelline glands and follicular testes are evident (8). Free-living ciliated oncosphere and subsequent larval stages (3-7).

Copépodes parasites. Casimir Cépède & Rémy Perrier. c.1923.

Subphylum Crustacea

Parasites of fish: 1 a+d) Lepeophtheirus, female with egg sacs, male and different larval stages. 2 a+g) Lernaea, different larval stages of the life cycle and female with ovigerous sacs (g). 3) Brush. 4 a+b) Brachiella, male and female, in copulation. 5 b+c, 6) Lernaeenicus. 7) Chondracanthus, female and small male, which lives attached to the female genital opening.

Décapodes. Morphologie de l’Ecrevisse. Casimir Cépède & Rémy Perrier. c.1923.

Phylum Arthropoda
Subphylum Crustacea

Crayfish. Ventral view:
1) male. 2) female carrying eggs with pleopods. 3) top view of head 4) Stalked compound eye. 7-12) Mouth and thorax appendages. 15, 16) Reproductive systems. 17) Excretory gland (green gland) and its bladder.

Fécondation. 1-13 Echinodermes (Toxopneustes). AC Nématodes (Ascaris). Casimir Cépède & Rémy Perrier. c.1923.
Holothuries. Casimir Cépède & Rémy Perrier. c.1923.

Phylum Echinodermata
Classe Holothuroidea

1) Cucumaria, with ambulatory pedicels and ten branched oral tentacles. 2) Holothuria (sea cucumber), with dorsal pedicels transformed into papillae. 3) Benthodytes, strongly depressed benthic organism, in dorsal and ventral view. Accentuated bilateral symmetry. 4) Cucumaria incurvata, synonym of Leptopenctata tergestina. 5 and 5 ‘) Ypsilothuria, abyssal form, in which the buccal extremity is displaced near the posterior anal extremity, due to the extraordinary shortening of the dorsal cyclomer. 7) Pelagothuria, a pelagic oceanic species, with long arms joined at the base by a membrane.

Maturation des gamètes. Maturation du spermatozoïde et de [the ovule] of Ascaris megalocephala.
Casimir Cépède & Rémy Perrier. c.1923.
Mimétisme. Casimir Cépède & Rémy Perrier. c.1923.

Parietal table.

Phylum Arthropoda
Subphylum Hexapoda
Classe Insecta

The phenomenon of mimicry of Phasmatodea insects is illustrated. Complicated shapes and colors are noted, which give the animal aspects of dry leaves, twigs, lichens, stones, bark, etc., with surprising mimetic results.

Organes de la vue. L’oeil et la retine. Casimir Cépède & Rémy Perrier. c.1923.

Anatomy of the human eye.
In sagittal section (1), details of the region of the optic disc (6) visual accommodation system (2, 3) and of the cellular layers that make up the retina (4, 5).

Orthoptères – Acridiens. Demi-métamorphoses du Criquet pélerin. Schistocerca peregrina.
Casimir Cépède & Rémy Perrier. c.1923.

Subphylum Hexapoda
Insecta Class
Orthoptera, Caelifera
Schistocerca peregrina

Migratory insects, with hind legs suitable for jumping; front wings (tegmine) sclerified and less broad than the hind wings.
Female with ovipositor, which lays the eggs in an ootheca in the ground; paurometabolous post-embryonic development with different stages of nymphs and nymphs, showing the progressive growth of the wings.

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